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In this chapter, the most important types of biogas plants are described:

Of these, the two most familiar types in developing countries are the fixed-dome plants and the floating-drum plants. Typical designs in industrialized countries and appropriate design selection criteria have also been considered.

Fixed-dome plants

The costs of a fixed-dome biogas plant are relatively low. It is simple as no moving parts exist. There are also no rusting steel parts and hence a long life of the plant (20 years or more) can be expected. The plant is constructed underground, protecting it from physical damage and saving space. While the underground digester is protected from low temperatures at night and during cold seasons, sunshine and warm seasons take longer to heat up the digester. No day/night fluctuations of temperature in the digester positively influence the bacteriological processes.
The construction of fixed dome plants is labor-intensive, thus creating local employment. Fixed-dome plants are not easy to build. They should only be built where construction can be supervised by experienced biogas technicians. Otherwise plants may not be gas-tight (porosity and cracks).
The basic elements of a fixed dome plant (here the Nicarao Design) are shown in the figure below.

[IMAGE] Fixed dome plant Nicarao design: 1. Mixing tank with inlet pipe and sand trap. 2. Digester. 3. Compensation and removal tank. 4. Gasholder. 5. Gaspipe. 6. Entry hatch, with gastight seal. 7. Accumulation of thick sludge. 8. Outlet pipe. 9. Reference level. 10. Supernatant scum, broken up by varying level.
Source: TBW

[IMAGE] Basic function of a fixed-dome biogas plant, 1 Mixing pit, 2 Digester, 3 Gasholder, 4 Displacement pit, 5 Gas pipe


A fixed-dome plant comprises of a closed, dome-shaped digester with an immovable, rigid gas-holder and a displacement pit, also named 'compensation tank'. The gas is stored in the upper part of the digester. When gas production commences, the slurry is displaced into the compensating tank. Gas pressure increases with the volume of gas stored, i.e. with the height difference between the two slurry levels. If there is little gas in the gas-holder, the gas pressure is low.


The digesters of fixed-dome plants are usually masonry structures, structures of cement and ferro-cement exist. Main parameters for the choice of material are:
  • Technical suitability (stability, gas- and liquid tightness);
  • cost-effectiveness;
  • availability in the region and transport costs;
  • availability of local skills for working with the particular building material.
Fixed dome plants produce just as much gas as floating-drum plants, if they are gas-tight. However, utilization of the gas is less effective as the gas pressure fluctuates substantially. Burners and other simple appliances cannot be set in an optimal way. If the gas is required at constant pressure (e.g., for engines), a gas pressure regulator or a floating gas-holder is necessary.
[IMAGE] Fixed-dome plant in Tunesia. The final layers of the masonry structure are being fixed.
Photo: gtz/GATE


The top part of a fixed-dome plant (the gas space) must be gas-tight. Concrete, masonry and cement rendering are not gas-tight. The gas space must therefore be painted with a gas-tight layer (e.g. 'Water-proofer', Latex or synthetic paints). A possibility to reduce the risk of cracking of the gas-holder consists in the construction of a weak-ring in the masonry of the digester. This "ring" is a flexible joint between the lower (water-proof) and the upper (gas-proof) part of the hemispherical structure. It prevents cracks that develop due to the hydrostatic pressure in the lower parts to move into the upper parts of the gas-holder.

Types of fixed-dome plants

[IMAGE] Chinese fixed dome plant
Source: TBW
  • Chinese fixed-dome plant is the archetype of all fixed dome plants. Several million have been constructed in China. The digester consists of a cylinder with round bottom and top.
  • Janata model was the first fixed-dome design in India, as a response to the Chinese fixed dome plant. It is not constructed anymore. The mode of construction lead to cracks in the gasholder - very few of these plant had been gas-tight.
  • Deenbandhu, the successor of the Janata plant in India, with improved design, was more crack-proof and consumed less building material than the Janata plant. with a hemisphere digester
  • CAMARTEC model has a simplified structure of a hemispherical dome shell based on a rigid foundation ring only and a calculated joint of fraction, the so-called weak / strong ring. It was developed in the late 80s in Tanzania.

[IMAGE] Fixed dome plant CAMARTEC design
Source: TBW

Climate and size

Fixed-dome plants must be covered with earth up to the top of the gas-filled space to counteract the internal pressure (up to 0,15 bar). The earth cover insulation and the option for internal heating makes them suitable for colder climates. Due to economic parameters, the recommended minimum size of a fixed-dome plant is 5 m3. Digester volumes up to 200 m3 are known and possible.
Advantages: Low initial costs and long useful life-span; no moving or rusting parts involved; basic design is compact, saves space and is well insulated; construction creates local employment.
Disadvantages: Masonry gas-holders require special sealants and high technical skills for gas-tight construction; gas leaks occur quite frequently; fluctuating gas pressure complicates gas utilization; amount of gas produced is not immediately visible, plant operation not readily understandable; fixed dome plants need exact planning of levels; excavation can be difficult and expensive in bedrock.

[IMAGE] Installation of a Shanghai fixed-dome system near Shanghai, PR China
Photo: L. Sasse

Fixed dome plants can be recommended only where construction can be supervised by experienced biogas technicians.

Floating-drum plants

[IMAGE] Floating-drum plant in Mauretania
Photo: gtz/GATE

The drum

In the past, floating-drum plants were mainly built in India. A floating-drum plant consists of a cylindrical or dome-shaped digester and a moving, floating gas-holder, or drum. The gas-holder floats either directly in the fermenting slurry or in a separate water jacket. The drum in which the biogas collects has an internal and/or external guide frame that provides stability and keeps the drum upright. If biogas is produced, the drum moves up, if gas is consumed, the gas-holder sinks back.


Floating-drum plants are used chiefly for digesting animal and human feces on a continuous-feed mode of operation, i.e. with daily input. They are used most frequently by small- to middle-sized farms (digester size: 5-15m3) or in institutions and larger agro-industrial estates (digester size: 20-100m3).
Advantages: Floating-drum plants are easy to understand and operate. They provide gas at a constant pressure, and the stored gas-volume is immediately recognizable by the position of the drum. Gas-tightness is no problem, provided the gasholder is de-rusted and painted regularly.
Disadvantages: The steel drum is relatively expensive and maintenance-intensive. Removing rust and painting has to be carried out regularly. The life-time of the drum is short (up to 15 years; in tropical coastal regions about five years). If fibrous substrates are used, the gas-holder shows a tendency to get "stuck" in the resultant floating scum.
[IMAGE] Water-jacket plant with external guide frame. 1 Mixing pit, 11 Fill pipe, 2 Digester, 3 Gasholder, 31 Guide frame, 4 Slurry store, 5 Gas pipe
Source: Sasse, 1984

Water-jacket floating-drum plants

Water-jacket plants are universally applicable and easy to maintain. The drum cannot get stuck in a scum layer, even if the substrate has a high solids content. Water-jacket plants are characterized by a long useful life and a more aesthetic appearance (no dirty gas-holder). Due to their superior sealing of the substrate (hygiene!), they are recommended for use in the fermentation of night soil. The extra cost of the masonry water jacket is relatively modest.

Material of digester and drum

The digester is usually made of brick, concrete or quarry-stone masonry with plaster. The gas drum normally consists of 2.5 mm steel sheets for the sides and 2 mm sheets for the top. It has welded-in braces which break up surface scum when the drum rotates. The drum must be protected against corrosion. Suitable coating products are oil paints, synthetic paints and bitumen paints. Correct priming is important. There must be at least two preliminary coats and one topcoat. Coatings of used oil are cheap. They must be renewed monthly. Plastic sheeting stuck to bitumen sealant has not given good results. In coastal regions, repainting is necessary at least once a year, and in dry uplands at least every other year. Gas production will be higher if the drum is painted black or red rather than blue or white, because the digester temperature is increased by solar radiation. Gas drums made of 2 cm wire-mesh-reinforced concrete or fiber-cement must receive a gas-tight internal coating. The gas drum should have a slightly sloping roof, otherwise rainwater will be trapped on it, leading to rust damage. An excessively steep-pitched roof is unnecessarily expensive and the gas in the tip cannot be used because when the drum is resting on the bottom, the gas is no longer under pressure.
Floating-drums made of glass-fiber reinforced plastic and high-density polyethylene have been used successfully, but the construction costs are higher compared to using steel. Floating-drums made of wire-mesh-reinforced concrete are liable to hairline cracking and are intrinsically porous. They require a gas-tight, elastic internal coating. PVC drums are unsuitable because they are not resistant to UV.

[IMAGE] Floating-drum plant in Burkina Faso
Photo: gtz/GATE

Guide frame

The side wall of the gas drum should be just as high as the wall above the support ledge. The floating-drum must not touch the outer walls. It must not tilt, otherwise the coating will be damaged or it will get stuck. For this reason, a floating-drum always requires a guide. This guide frame must be designed in a way that allows the gas drum to be removed for repair. The drum can only be removed if air can flow into it, either by opening the gas outlet or by emptying the water jacket.
The floating gas drum can be replaced by a balloon above the digester. This reduces construction costs but in practice problems always arise with the attachment of the balloon to the digester and with the high susceptibility to physical damage.

Types of floating-drum plants

There are different types of floating-drum plants (see drawings under Construction):
  • KVIC model with a cylindrical digester, the oldest and most widespread floating drum biogas plant from India.

    [IMAGE] Fixed dome plant CAMARTEC design
    Source: TBW

  • Pragati model with a hemisphere digester
  • Ganesh model made of angular steel and plastic foil
  • floating-drum plant made of pre-fabricated reinforced concrete compound units
  • floating-drum plant made of fibre-glass reinforced polyester
  • BORDA model: The BORDA-plant combines the static advantages of hemispherical digester with the process-stability of the floating-drum and the longer life span of a water jacket plant.


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