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Biogas Purification:  H2S Removal using Biofiltration
Mary Elizabeth Fischer

H2S Removal using Biofiltration

A thesis
presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Applied Science in Chemical Engineering

I hereby declare that I am the sole author of this thesis. This is a true copy of the thesis, including any required final revisions, as accepted by my examiners. 
I understand that my thesis may be made electronically available to the public.

Biogas, composed principally of methane, has limited use in energy generation due to the presence of hydrogen sulphide (H2S). Biogas cannot be burned directly in an engine as H2S present causes corrosion in the reaction chamber. There currently exist various technologies for the removal of H2S from a gas stream, but most are chemically based, expensive, and are limited in use. 
The purpose of this study was to determine a biogas purification technique suitable for a small scale farm application; including using a technology inexpensive, efficient, robust and easy to operate. As such, biofiltration was investigated for H2S removal from biogas. Factors considered in the design of  the biofiltration system included the source and conditioning of inoculum, type of packing material, and general operating conditions including inlet gas flow rate and H2S loading rate to the biofilter.  Activated sludge conditioned in  A. ferrooxidans  media was an effective inoculum source. This was tested for growth support compatibility with gravel packing material, to be used in the biofilter. The inoculated packing material was loaded into the biofilter initially during start-up and acclimatization.  In this study, synthetic biogas (49.9%volCH4, 49.9%volCO2, 2000ppmv H2S) mixed with air (totalling 4%vol O2) was added at 5-10L/hr to a biofilter of 0.4L gravel packing inoculated with conditioned activated sludge. Baseline H2S removal studies in a non-inoculated biofilter were performed with anticipated operating conditions, including an inlet gas stream at 7.5L/h (25oC, 1atm), resulting in 31-56% H2S removal. A factorial test performed found that air content in the inlet gas stream was the significant factor affecting the removal of H2S in the non-inoculated biofilter. 
Operation of the biofilter with biogas was done for 61 days, including 41 days for start-up and acclimatization and 20 days of H2S loading tests. Start-up and acclimatization with biogas resulted in complete H2S removal after 2 days, with an average overall H2S removal of 98.1%±2.9 std deviation over 34 days. Loading tests performed on the system ranged 5-12.4L/h (25oC, 1atm), with a loading rate of 27.8 to 69.5gH2S/m3
h of filter bed. Throughout this test the average H2S removal rate was 98.9%±2.1 std deviation over 20 days. Although complete H2S breakthrough studies were not performed, these results indicate that biofiltration is a promising technology for H2S removal from biogas in a small scale application. 


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