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Let's see the basic concept of the biogas production process flow.

Initial stage is to prepare the organic materials that can be digested by bacteria and microorganisms that are in the biogas reactor. In this case, because the installation of biogas done in the area of dairy cattle, the main raw material used is cow dung. Please note, that if that be the main objective of the installation of biogas is the attainment of optimal gas production, cow dung is not a good raw material.
The next stage is what we call the input phase. In this phase of processing performed on raw materials to meet the requirements we've set previously, namely:
a. The first filtration.
The target of this screening is the raw material does not contain fibers that are too rough. Crude fiber here means waste other than garbage or dirt corral livestock manure, such as stems and leaves hard, the rest of the grass stems and other debris, mostly remnant remaining livestock feed that is too harsh. This can lead to Scum / foam and residue inside the reactor that can reduce the performance of the reactor itself.
b. Mixing with water and stirring.
Performed mixing cow dung and water. Water is needed by the microorganisms in the reactor as a medium of transport. Therefore this stage is crucial because the mixture is too thin or too thick can interfere with the performance of the reactor and complicate the handling of effluent (biogas reactor output). As a basic guide, a good mix ranging from 7% - 9% solids. Here also is stirring the mixture for organic materials - water can be mixed with homogeneous.
c. Filtration second
Our target by performing a second stage filtration is to separate the cow dung as organic raw materials of the reactor with other inorganic materials that qualify in the first stage filter is mainly sand and stone small stones. This process is quite important considering the content of inorganic material (sand) in the reactor can not be digested by bacteria and can cause residue in the bottom of reactor.
d. Intake of organic matter
We made ​​a sort of valve / faucet simple for the intake of organic material into the reactor can be done as easily as possible.
It's quite a lot of parameters that need to be considered in making these biogas reactor (parameters and other conditions such as temperature conditions, the ratio of carbon - nitrogen, acidity levels and other hopefully we alluded to in the next article). It seems that it is the primary obstacle in correctional operations and mass use of biogas reactors in many countries.
Our target in reactor design and infrastructure to do this is the workmanship and operation can be performed by children or employees of the garden enclosure. So that the process of this complicated process should be as simple as possible and not add more staff workload.

In this basin manure mixed with water and then flowed into reactor.

Reactor 2.2 Plastics
Reactor made ​​of polyethylene plastic we put a semi-underground, half buried in the soil. For that need to be made ​​such as a vessel for the reactor in the form of a tubular reactor can be stored properly.
This reactor is a length of 6m, width of 95cm, bottom width 75cm, height at end of input is 85cm, and 95cm high at the end of the output. To more clearly, consider the following scheme.

Figure 3: Scheme biogast reactor.
(1) gas hose. (2). Tube safety

The dimensions of the reactor is made ​​very dependent on the dimensions of the reactor that will be made ​​and certainly the size of the plastic polyethylene (PE) available on the market. We use PE plastic with a wide span of 150cm, so that when the tubular shape, its diameter is approximately 95cm. The capacity of the reactor that we made ​​more than 4000 liters. This reactor has the inclination of about 2-3 degrees down the hole leading to the output. This inclination is made ​​to maximize the volume of the reactor that can be filled by the materials.
After the excavation of the reactor, the formation of the reactor wall can be done with soil-cement mixture, cement, brick, or like we did, using a mixture of water and soil alone. This is done to reduce the cost of production. Soil excavation is mixed with water and stirred with a stirring way to get trampled in the stampede that has the texture of clay soil. Thereafter with a spoon wall can be made ​​walls, just like brick with cement. This is very cheap and simple, but it is not good in terms of endurance, because the influence of temperature, and the mixture is not homogeneous soil wall will be easily cracked and broken. We need to make this wall because the location was on the ground urugan reactor, the reactor should indeed be made ​​on the ground rather than urugan, thus making the wall to take advantage of existing soil hardness.

Protector Gambar.4 reactor

As shown in the figure, the top of the reactor for a while covered with a sack used for plastic bags do not break before the reactor goes into it. Noteworthy also is the edge of the surface flatness and basic reactor. Make sure there are no stones or roots are left that can hurt the plastic bag. Also make a small ditch around the reactor so that water does not enter into the reactor installation.

Biogas reactor design of polyethylene plastic bags are as follows:

We use a hose connection 5 / 8 "from the gas outlet to the bottle trap water vapor. Unfortunately the quality of the hose that is used is not good because no anti-buckling. We plan to replace it if there is a chance. Hose in a plastic hose clamps to the socket and then connected to the PVC SDD and by using PVC glue PVC pipe connected to ¾ ". From there a washer / ring used plastic cut from a jerry can of oil former second washer is clamped in a car tire rubber. Inside the plastic bag, there are also 2 fruit washer and SDL. Another trick that we do is cut the lower end of SDL, so a higher base SDL surface of liquid manure. This is to avoid the clogged at the outlet gas duct.
We recommend to use rubber tires in the car to make the washer, because it is thicker, and also because this activity is widely used in rubber tires (motorcycle), please note the quality of the tire rubber, sometimes there are hard rubber is so easy to rip.
2.3.1 Mempersiapan Polyethylene Plastic Bags
Polyethylene plastic bag with 150cm width, we get in a plastic shop at Sentry seputaran Jati, Bandung. Its specification is 150x0.15. This is the specification of the thickest plastic that we could get. It would be more ideal if the plastic used is much thicker. In the market available from 80cm wide, 100cm, 120cm and 150cm. According to the FAO would be better if using a plastic that has anti-ultra-violet (UV) as used in the home greenhouse (usually slightly greenish yellow foliage). But we can not find the plastic UV that is still in a state of tubular bags (side not truncated .)
Please note also the handling of this plastic. PE Plastic is a material that is strong enough, but when folded, can leave scratches and when exposed to hot sun and rain water can crack and tear. We certainly do not want this to happen. Therefore we recommend to buy and carefully handle the plastic in rolls, not folded. In our experiments this installation uses two plastic concurrently. This is due to the thickness and strength problems. But it turns out duplicate applications is also felt to have shortcomings which we will describe below.
First of all gelarlah pads to protect the plastic from sharp objects such as rocks and tree limbs when you would make in the field like we did. Of course it would be better if done at the base of the reactor making the slippery like ceramic tiles. Be careful also of metal objects that you carry like belts, watches or key chains. These objects can injure the plastic, so tanggalkanlah first such objects from your body.

Figure 7: Deploying plastic

The technique we use for plastic geminate is to include small parts and pieces to the two ends tied with rope, then the other end of the rope was thrown to the end of the first sheet. Then the rope stay withdrawn and the second plastic sheet into the first sheet with ease.
Furthermore, after the two sheets of plastic equated the tip end, and the second sheet is cut, it's time to install the gas outlet.
Define one end of which will become the upper end and measure 1.5 meters long from the tip and mark with a marker. Signs must be right in the middle of the plastic, so it is expected the gas outlet right in the middle of the reactor surface.
The hole should be made ​​slightly larger than the outside diameter of the screw SDL (drat socket outer) gas outlet. If not fit well in the plastic tip is feared will be interested when you tighten the socket.

The next step is to install the dirt channel, either incoming or outgoing. This is a step that needs to be done with caution because it requires a tidiness to avoid leaks.
We use a different pipe to the inlet and exit, because its consideration is the availability of materials in the warehouse. J garden
Should the size of the pipe entrance and exit are the same, more or less in diameter between 10 - 15cm. Can use a PVC with a size 4 "or 6" (but expensive) can also use ceramic pipe (already somewhat difficult to find in the city of Bandung), or use a plastic bucket which basically cut and spliced, and so forth, please be creative.
The length of pipe about 75 - 100cm. Enter half of the length of pipe into the 2 pieces of plastic PE. And by carefully folding the plastic becomes one with the pipe (see picture)

Make sure the ties are really strong rubber cord, again reminded, a lot of unused rubber strap a rubber brittle and easily broken. You do not want you breaking the reactor is not it? To the double bond to strengthen the knot. Noteworthy also is the binding of rubber straps should overlap (overlap), and the plastic tip should not be seen, add a few more rounds to ensure tight connections.
By using two layers of plastic PE difficulty is that air is trapped between the plastic sheet. This we think can shorten the life of plastic. Unfortunately it is only later we realized after biogas installed. The solution is to remove the air trapped when the pair of inlet and outlet pipes.

2.3.3 Installing the Reactor.
Reactors can be installed. Once mounted in place, we fill the reactor with a little water to avoid terlipatnya plastic and make it sit better. Inlet pipe attached to the outlet hole basin mixer and a pair of stoppers, while the gas outlet pipe outlet and we let it remain closed. After installation, the filling can be performed.

Process of what we do takes about 8 working days effective. 2 days to make the bathtub mixer (2 HOK; person days), 5 days (15 HOK) to make reactor reactor and 1 day (2 HOK) for the manufacture of reactors. Labor required is 19 HOK until the reactor is attached.
About 20 days later, it seems that gas had started in production. Plastic indicators began to bubble and hardware developers.

Note:Original post in Indonesian Click here...


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